History of Civilizations of Central Asia

Development in Contrast : from the Sixteeth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

作者: Adle, Chahryar (EDT)/ Habib, Irfan (EDT)/ Baipakov, Karl M. (EDT) 译者:

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History of Civilizations of Central Asia         This volume continues the history of Central Asian civilizations from c. 1500 to c. 1850, a period which saw the last medieval empires, notably the Uzbeks, Safavids, Mughals and Dzungars, and witnessed the early impact of colonialism. Like the preceding volumes, the present one also deals with all the diverse elements of culture. It describes the last phase of nomadism as a viable system of social organization; the effects on Central Asian economies of the shift of the main lines of international trade from the Great Silk Route to the oceanic routes; the various schools of art; the last great age of classical Persian literature and the growth of Turkic literatures; and, finally, in the religious sphere, the Shi`ite triumph in Persia, the conversion of the Mongol peoples to Buddhism, and the rise of Sikhism. It also analyses the problem of the lag in Central Asian scientific and technological development in relation to Europe and the nature of early colonialism – notably British and Russian – in Central Asia. The conclusion sums up the main trends in Central Asian history from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century.
Description of the project
M. S. Asimov
Members of the International Scientific Committee
Contents
Description of the project
M. S. Asimov
Members of the International Scientific Committee
List of contributors
Editors’ note
Introduction
The Editors
Chapter 1. The khanate (emirate) of Bukhara
Part One:
- The Shaybanids
R. G. Mukminova
Part Two:
- The Janids (Astarkhanids)
R. G. Mukminova
Part Three:
- The Manghits
A. Mukhtarov
Chapter 2. The khanates of Khiva and Kokand and the relations between the khanates and with other powers
Part One:
- The khanate of Khiva (Khwarazm)
M. Annanepesov
Part Two:
- Ferghana and the khanate of Kokand
H. N. Bababekov
Part Three:
- Relations between the khanates and with other powers
M. Annanepesov
Chapter 3. The Kazakhs
K. M. Baipakov and B. E. Kumekov
Chapter 4. The Kyrgyz
T. Tchoroev (Chorotegin)
Chapter 5. The Turkmens
M. Annanepesov
Chapter 6. The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks), and the peoples of southern Siberia
Part One:
- History of the Dzungars: introductory survey
J. Miyawaki
Part Two:
- The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks) in China
Bai Cuiqin
Part Three:
- The peoples of southern Siberia in the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries
L. R. Kyzlasov
Chapter 7. The Tarim basin
Ma Dazheng
Chapter 8. The Mongols
N. Ishjamts
Chapter 9. The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the trans-Pamir states
Part One:
- The Pamirs and Badakhshan
H. S. Pirumshoev
Part Two:
- The trans-Pamir states
A. H. Dani
Chapter 10. Persia during the period of the Safavids, the Afshars and the early Qajars
E. Eshraghi
Part One:
- The Safavids (1501-1722)
Part Two:
- The Afshars, a short-lived military empire (1736-47), and the Zand regime (1747-94)
Part Three:
- The early Qajars at the threshold of the modern world (1795-1848)
Chapter 11. Afghanistan
Mir Hussain Shah
Chapter 12. The Mughal empire and its successors
M. Athar Ali
Chapter 13. International relations
Part One:
- Inter-state relations (c. 1500-1850)
Iqtidar A. Khan
Part Two:
- Colonialism and Central Asia
Irfan Habib
Chapter 14. Society
Part One:
- Social structure
- - Nomadic societies
The Editors
- - Sedentary societies
S. Moosvi
Part Two:
- The status of women
- - Transoxania
A. Tabyshalieva
- - Iran
S. Moosvi
- - India
S. Moosvi
Chapter 15. The economy: Production and trade
Part One:
- Production
- - Northern areas (Transoxania and the steppes)
- - Pastoral production
N. Masanov
- - Agriculture
The Editors
- - Handicrafts
K. M. Baipakov
- Southern Central Asia
S. Moosvi
Part Two:
- Trade
A. Burton
Chapter 16. Monetary systems and prices
Part One:
- Northern parts of Central Asia: monetary policy and currency circulation under the Shaybanid and the Janid (Astarkhanid) dynasties
E. A. Davidovich
Part Two:
- Eastern and northern Central Asia (c. 1750 to c. 1850)
E. V. Rtveladze
Part Three:
- The monetary system in Safavid Persia
S. Moosvi
Part Four:
- The monetary system and price movements in India
S. Moosvi
Chapter 17. Science and technology
Irfan Habib
Part One:
- Science
Part Two:
- Technology
Chapter 18. Architecture
Part One:
- Architecture in Transoxania and Khurasan
G. A. Pugachenkova
Part Two:
- The architecture of the Mughal empire (north-western regions)
A. H. Dani
Part Three:
- The eastern region of Central Asia
Liu Zhengyin
Part Four:
- Mongol architecture
E. Alexandre
Chapter 19. Arts of the book, painting and calligraphy
Part One:
- Iran and north-western Central Asia
O. Akimushkin
- - Iran
- - North-western Central Asia
Part Two:
- Painting in Mughal India
A. Okada
Part Three:
- Eastern Central Asia
Liu Zhengyin
Chapter 20. Applied arts: metalwork, ceramics and sculpture
A. Ivanov
- Metalwork
- Ceramics
- Sculpture
Chapter 21. Applied arts: textiles and carpets
Part One:
- Textile fabrics other than carpets
M. Ashrafi
Part Two:
- Textile arts in Transoxania
L. Carmel and M. Niyazova
Part Three:
- Carpets
E. Tsareva
Chapter 22. Literature in Persian and other Indo-Iranian languages
Part One:
- Literature in Persian
K. Aini
Part Two:
- Literature in Pashto
R. Farhadi
Part Three:
- Literature in the Indic languages of Pakistan and north-western India
Irfan Habib
- Appendix:
The languages of Afghanistan
R. Farhadi
Chapter 23. Turkic and Mongolian literature
Part One:
- Turkic literature
A. Kayumov
Part Two:
- The epic tradition and historical literature in Turkic
I. Togan
Part Three:
- Mongolian literature
G. Kara
Part Four:
- Mongolian lexicography and historiography
Sh. Bira
Chapter 24. Philosophy, logic and cosmology
M. Dinorshoev
Chapter 25. Religious movements
Part One:
- Islam
- - The Sufi orders in northern Central Asia
Th. Zarcone
- - Shicism in Iran
Irfan Habib
- - Islam in India
Irfan Habib
Part Two:
- Buddhism
Y. Ishihama
Part Three:
- Hinduism
J. S. Grewal
Part Four:
- Sikhism
J. S. Grewal
Part Five:
- Shamanism
C. E. Bosworth
Part Six:
- Cultural and religious cross-fertilization between Central Asia and the Indo-Persian world
J. Calmard
Conclusion
The Editors
Maps:
General map of Central Asia (1500-1850)
The khanates of Central Asia
Eastern and northern Central Asia: the Dzungar expansion
The Mongols after the fall of the Dzungar empire
The changing frontiers of Iran
The Mughal empire and its neighbours (1605)
Afghanistan. Map of languages and dialects
Bibliography and References
Glossary
Index                索引
C. ADLE
Director of Research
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
Paris, France
K. Irfan HABIB
Department of History
Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, India
K.M. BAIPAKOV
The Margulan Institute of Archaeology
Ministry of Sciences
Almaty, Kazakhstan
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标签: 中亚 游牧 历史 内亚 世界史 Central_Asia

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